The science of comfort developed in the 20th century around the needs of the HVAC industry for whom comfort was a product, produced by machines to be sold to customers. Engineers and other building professionals needed target conditions to feed into their calculations to create comfortable or neutral environments for groups of people in diverse buildings. In such calculations it is assumed that comfort can be predicted from an understanding of the thermal balance alone between the environment and an average individual member of the group. Note that the terminology used by comfort researchers is that of engineering and physics – temperature, humidity and air speed, clothing insulation and watts of metabolic heat in m2. An increasing acceptance of the behavioural, or adaptive approach to comfort has opened the way for a more holistic and dynamic understanding of thermal comfort.

However, despite being valued for its ability to deal with variable conditions, the field study approach has continued to concentrate on finding a comfort temperature for a particular group or environment. We live in a world of rapid cultural, economic, environmental and architectural changes. At the same time there is a growing imperative to reduce energy use and related ghg emissions and to cope with extreme weather and power outages in buildings. If we also want to make indoor environments more delightful there is a pressing need for more research into the dynamic nature of comfort. Increasingly the insights of psychology and thermal physiology will inform research in this field.

We also need to make the results we obtain from comfort research more accessible and widely applied. How can we help architects and engineers design better, more comfortable buildings? Thermal comfort studies help us write specifications for International Standards, or size an AC system, but do they help us decide what type of building is best in a humid tropical climate or how much diurnal variability is desirable in a north European home? Where should we build using massive stonework or where from wood and cane? When to use shading or shutters? How different are homes from offices? When to welcome in the sun? We need tools to explore and answer such questions and then convert this understanding into advice, not in the terminology of physicists and engineers but of architects and builders? Can we present our ideas to design students in a way which will excite them?

These are the key aims of the 9th Windsor Conference: Developing more dynamic approaches to thermal comfort to provide innovative solutions to the challenge of designing buildings that are genuinely low energy, comfortable and resilient.


9th Windsor Conference
International Conference
held 10th-13th April 2016
at Cumberland Lodge
Windsor Great Park, UK


Fergus Nicol
Susan Roaf
Luisa Brotas
Michael Humphreys


Michael Adebamowo (NG)
Edward Arens (US)
Philomena Bluyssen (NL)
Atze Boerstra (NL)
Gail Brager (US)
Luisa Brotas (UK)
Richard de Dear (AU)
Dusan Fiala (DE)
Andy Ford (UK)
Rajat Gupta (UK)
Jake Hacker (UK)
Runa Hellwig (DE)
George Havenith (UK)
Gesche Huebner (UK)
Michael A Humphreys (UK)
Madhavi Indraganti (QA)
Tri Harso Karyono (ID))
Boris Kingma (NL)
Maria Kolokotroni (UK)
Jarek Kurnitski (FI)
Alison Kwok (US)
Ashok Lall (IN)
Roberto Lamberts (BR)
Hal Levin (US)
Baizhan Li (CN)
Wouter van Marken
Lichtenbelt (NL)
Dennis Loveday (UK)
Giancarlo Mangone (NL)
Azadeh Montazami (UK)
Fergus Nicol (UK)
Edward Ng (CN)
Marialena Nikolopoulou (UK)
Bjarne Olesen (DK)
Mark Olweny (UG)
Ryozo Ooka (JP)
Ken Parsons (UK)
Jens Pfafferott (DE)
Adrian Pitts (UK)
Iftikhar Raja (PK)
Hom Rijal (JP)
Kosonen Risto (FI)
Susan Roaf (UK)
Darren Robinson (UK)
Mattheos Santamouris (GR)
Stefano Schiavon (US)
Fionn Stevenson (UK)
Shin-ichi Tanabe (JP)
Despoina Teli (UK)
Paul Tuohy (UK)
Terry Williamson (AU)
Peter Wouters (BE)
Da Yan (CN)
Runming Yao (UK)
Yingxin Zhu (CN)


Abdulrahman Alshaikh (UK)
Meshack Efeoma (UK)
Asif Din (UK)

London Metropolitan University

London Metropolitan University

Heriot Watt University

Heriot-Watt University


Network for Comfort and
Energy Use in Buildings





Opus Energy

Opus Energy



9th Windsor Conference 2016

Attendees 2014



Thursday 7th April 2016

After Dinner Talk - Invited Chair: Michael Humphreys

Friday 8th April 2016

SESSION 1: New Thinking and Hot Topics in Comfort 09:00 - 11:00
Invited Chairs: Richard de Dear and Luisa Brotas

SESSION 2: People, Behaviours and Ageing 11:20 - 13:00
Invited Chairs: Edward Ng and Fionn Stevenson

SESSION 3: Comfort in Buildings 14:00 - 16:00
Invited Chairs: Yingxin Zhu and Maria Kolokotroni

WORKSHOP 1.1: Thermal Comfort with Radiant & Convective Systems16:30 - 18:00
Invited Chairs: Risto Kosonen and Caroline Karmann Flitcroft Room

WORKSHOP 1.2: Putting People in to Building Comfort Models 16:30 - 18:00
Invited Chairs: Boris Kingma and Paul Tuohy Sandy Room

WORKSHOP 1.3: The Role of Clothing in Comfort 16:30 - 18:00
Invited Chairs: George Havenith and Roberto Lamberts Hodgson Room

After Dinner talk 20:30 - 21:30
Invited Chair: Fergus Nicol

Saturday 9th April 2016

SESSION 4: Comfort in Hotter Climates 09:00 - 11:00
Invited Chairs: Madhavi Indraganti and Michael Adebamowo

SESSION 5: Smart Comfort and Controls 11:20 - 13:00
Invited Chairs: Bjarne Olesen and Ryozo Ooka

SESSION 6: Comfort and Climate 14:00 - 16:00
Invited Chairs: Philomena Bluyssen and Jens Pfafferot

WORKSHOP 2.1: Domestic Comfort in Different Climates 16:30 - 18:00
Invited Chairs: David Shipworth and Hom Rijal Flitcroft Room

WORKSHOP 2.2: Comfort Teaching, Tools and Techniques 16:30 - 18:00
Invited Chairs: Runa Hellwig and Stefano Schiavon Sandy Room

WORKSHOP 2.3: Thermal Physiology and Comfort 16:30 - 18:00
Invited Chairs: Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt and Ken Parsons Hodgson Room

After Dinner Event 20:30 - 21:30
Invited Chairs: Dennis Loveday and Susan Roaf

Sunday 10th April 2016

WORKSHOP 3.1: Comfort in Ventilated Spaces 09:00 - 10:30
Invited Chairs: Jarek Kurnitski and Adrian Pitts Flitcroft Room

WORKSHOP 3.2: Using Statistics Correctly to analyse Comfort and Behaviours 09:00 - 10:30
Invited Chairs: Jane and Rex Galbraith Sandy Room

WORKSHOP 3.3: Understanding Comfort, Attitudes and Behaviours 09:00 - 10:30
Invited Chairs: Da Yan and Atze Boerstra Hodgson Room

SESSION 7: Future Facing Hot Topics 11:00 - 13:00
Invited Chairs: Susan Roaf and Fergus Nicol


PAPERS appearing in the proceedings but authors unable to present

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